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Lucy Ogden-Doyle was only 14 when she learnt she may develop fertility problems. It was distressing news for someone who went to see her GP about irregular periods.

Her doctor said she might have a hormonal condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and she should drop five kilograms – despite then being 52 kilograms and 172 centimetres tall – to “pre-empt” weight gain, a symptom.

“It was quite a dramatic thing to tell someone so young that they may be infertile and to lose weight, which would have made me underweight,” Ms Ogden-Doyle, now 24, said.

“Two years later I had tests and I do have PCOS but I’m not showing the symptoms like excess hair or extra weight so, while it has been a negative experience, right now I’m not letting it affect me.”

The arts student is among one in five women diagnosed with PCOS, a deeply stigmatising condition. The figure is based on eight separate studies across six countries including Australia and China.

PCOS, which occurs when a woman’s ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal, is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women.

In an opinion article in the latest British Medical Journal, Australian researchers argue that an expanded definition had inadvertently led to overdiagnosis, and therefore too much treatment and even harm.

The widening of the definition (to include the sonographic presence of polycystic ovaries) in 2003 led to a dramatic increase in cases, from 5 to 21 per cent.

Lucy Ogden-Doyle has polycystic ovary syndrome. The definition of the term is problematic

Lead author Tessa Copp, a PhD student at Sydney University, said many women were being “given a lifelong disease label” in their teenage years when symptoms such as acne and irregular periods overlapped with signs of puberty.

She referred to three studies that found the prevalence of PCOS by age decreased rapidly after 25, suggesting the symptoms may be transitory for some women.

“A lot of my friends had it and were feeling quite dissatisfied because there’s no cure, nothing you can do, except to undergo treatments that focus on alleviating symptoms,” she said.

“Some cases are severe and they will benefit from the label, but women with milder symptoms may experience harm from the overdiagnosis and overtreatment.”

The authors said women diagnosed with PCOS had higher levels of depression, anxiety, poorer self-esteem, negative body image, disordered eating and decreased sexual satisfaction.

They said it was unclear whether these impacts were due to the condition, its symptoms, or from the psychological effect of being labelled a PCOS sufferer.

“It’s associated with infertility, hypertension and type 2 diabetes, so it labels women as abnormal but the consequences are not the same for everyone,” Ms Copp said.

The authors argue that, given the uncertainties, the risk of psychological harm and the impacts of applying a one-size-fits-all diagnostic criteria to a wide-ranging set of symptoms, it was important for doctors not to rush diagnosing women.

“We need better understanding and research to characterise the benefits and harms of diagnosis and treatment for women with both severe and milder symptoms,” Ms Copp said.

“Instead of diagnosing women in adolescence, note they’re at risk, follow up with them over time and use treatments that target the symptoms.”

Call to action

The article comes as influential health groups, including the Consumers Health Forum and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, launch a call to action to address overdiagnosis in general and “the problem of too much medicine”.

In an initial statement via a Wiser Healthcare collaboration, they said there was an urgent need to develop a national action plan.

“Expanding disease definitions and lowering diagnostic thresholds are recognised as one driver of the problem, and the processes for changing definitions require meaningful reform,” it said.

Dr Ray Moynihan, from Bond University and a Wiser Healthcare member, said the problem of too much medicine was driven by many factors, including the best of intentions.

“PCOS appears to be a strong example of the problem of expanding disease definitions or lowering diagnostic thresholds that are potentially labelling too many people,” he said.

PCOS is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, high blood pressure and poorer psychological wellbeing.

Wondering where the highest paid people in tech go to college? There’s a good chance it’s one of these 10 universities according to a new study.

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A new study from job site Paysa has ranked colleges around the world based on the salaries of their graduates in tech fields.

That six of the 10 schools are located in the United States is unsurprising. What is surprising, however, is which schools make the cut and which don’t—and their geographic locale inside the country.

The study doesn’t take university size into account—only average salary of graduates. That may be a factor for why some of the top of the list aren’t the largest universities, but it doesn’t explain a stranger statistic: The top five are all in the greater Seattle area or just across the bridge in Vancouver.

SEE: 10 bucks to snag an interview for your dream job? AI wants to help new college grads (TechRepublic)

Geographical oddities aside, here are the top 10 colleges with the highest earning graduates in tech.

The top 10 highest paid alumni bodies

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1. Seattle University

  • Location: Seattle, WA
  • Type: private
  • Average tech graduate salary: $265,869

2. Pacific Lutheran University

  • Location: Tacoma, WA
  • Type: private
  • Average tech graduate salary: $265,153

3. Simon Fraser University

  • Location: Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $263,574

4. City University of Seattle

  • Location: Seattle, WA
  • Type: private
  • Average tech graduate salary: $263,386

5. Central Washington University

  • Location: Ellensburg, WA
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $254,778

6. Tsinghua University

  • Location: Beijing, China
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $254,710

7. Harvard University

  • Location: Cambridge, MA
  • Type: private
  • Average tech graduate salary: $253,970

8. Lomonosov Moscow State University

  • Location: Moscow, Russia
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $252,874

9. University of Cambridge

  • Location: Cambridge, UK
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $252,645

10. University of Toronto

  • Location: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Type: public
  • Average tech graduate salary: $252,639

SEE: The Ultimate Learn to Code 2017 Bundle (TechRepublic Academy)

To see the full study, including infographics on cost vs. value, college representation at large tech firms, and statistics on women in tech, read the full study available on Paysa’s website.

Henry Sapiecha

Is this the end for ‘Do Not Track’, the web-tracking privacy service?

The most shocking internet privacy laws.

Twitter was one of the first companies to support Do Not Track (DNT), the website privacy policy. Now, Twitter is abandoning DNT and its mission to protect people from being tracked as they wander over the web.

DNT seemed like a good idea. By setting DNT on in your web browser, websites that supported DNT could neither place nor read advertising cookies on your device. Well, that was the idea anyway.

Any web browser or application that supported DNT added a small snippet of code to its request for a web page: DNT=1. This meant websites and services that observed DNT shouldn’t track you on the internet.

This would protect your online privacy. You might think that meant “Don’t collect and store any information about me without my explicit permission.”

Wrong.

From day one in 2012, that isn’t how it worked. According to Sarah Downey, an attorney and privacy advocate, the Interactive Advertising Bureau and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA), which represent most online advertisers, have their own interpretation of Do Not Track: “They have said they will stop serving targeted ads but will still collect and store and monetize data.”

However, Twitter played fair by the spirit of DNT rather than the law. Unfortunately, they were one of the few companies that did. DAA, for example, publicly abandoned DNT in 2013. With the advertisers and privacy advocates unable to agree on basic principles, DNT increasingly offered users no privacy protection worth the name.

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Henry Sapiecha

  • Bitcoin’s mysterious creator could be Australian Craig Steven Wright

Police and tax investigators have raided the Sydney home of a man that members of the Australian bitcoin community say might be the mastermind behind the controversial cryptocurrency, just hours after reports emerged in the United States suggesting that he may be its secretive creator.

However, Fairfax Media has been told the raid at the property of Craig Steven Wright relates to an “individual taxation matter” involving Mr Wright, rather than his apparent role in creating the encrypted currency.

The alleged creator of Bitcoin, Australian Craig Steven Wright.

Photo: soldierx.com

The Australian Federal Police attended Mr Wright’s home in Gordon, on Sydney’s north shore, on Wednesday afternoon to assist the Australian Taxation Office in carrying out a search.

In a report published on Wednesday morning, US tech publication Wired said it had uncovered enough evidence to suggest that bitcoin’s mysterious founder, who operated under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, was actually 44-year-old Mr Wright.

Wired acknowledged that its report was based on “unverified leaked documents” that it admitted “could be faked in whole or in part”.

Fairfax Media attempted to contact Mr Wright for comment but received no response. The Australian Federal Police referred matters to the ATO. The ATO declined to comment.

Mr Wright is listed by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission as a director of Hotwire and another company, Panopticrypt, which are both registered at a residential address on Sydney’s North Shore. He has been a shareholder and director in a range of other enterprises, the ASIC database shows.

This Sydney property owned by Craig Steven Wright was searched by police on Wednesday.

He is also listed as chief executive on the website of a company called DeMorgan, which describes itself “a pre-IPO Australian listed company focused on alternative currency, next generation banking and reputational and educational products.” Calls to this company went straight to voicemail.

‘He was a bit weird’

At about 4.15pm, the real estate agent managing the Gordon home leased by Mr Wright entered the house after being told by a neighbour, who knew the owners, that it was being searched.

The AFP and tax investigators raid Craig Wright’s home in Gordon.

Photo: Nick Moir

Federal Police and the ATO officers were then later seen leaving the property, at 4.50pm. Asked why the federal police were at the house, they offered “no comment”.

Neighbours, who didn’t wish to named, said Mr Wright was an elusive man who had two children and a partner. He had an expensive taste in cars, they said, having seen him pull up to the house in a Toyota Land Cruiser, a Lexus, and a Jaguar.

Mr Wright, his partner, and children were not seen within the vicinity of the house.

Apart from owning a dog, which one neighbour described as “noisy”, he also owned hens, which could be seen out the back of his house.

“I thought he did something with insurance or was an entrepreneur or something,” said one neighbour, who described Wright as a “daggy dad” often seen exercising in his garage gym. “He was a bit weird.”

Another neighbour said Mr Wright apparently had three-phase, 450-volt power — normally used for industrial applications — installed at the home.

The same neighbour said he recently heard that Wright had packed up the house as he was apparently off to go live in London. None of the neighbours interviewed said that Wright had told them he was the creator of Bitcoin.

Plausible candidate

Chris Guzowski, founder of ABA Technologies and a regular on the Bitcoin conference circuit, said Wired had uncovered enough circumstantial evidence for Mr Wright to be a plausible candidate.

“It certainly makes sense,” said Mr Guzowski. “He’s definitely been in Bitcoin from the very start and has accumulated a really big stash of Bitcoin. He’s also been in this huge stoush with the ATO for a long time.”

Andrew Sommer, a partner at Clayton Utz and who testified at last year’s Senate Inquiry into digital currency, is reputedly Mr White’s lawyer.

But Mr Sommer said he couldn’t comment on any client when contacted by Fairfax.

Zhenya Tsvetnenko, founder of bitcoin remittancy company Digital BTC, has discussed business with Mr Wright previously and was struck by his understanding of Bitcoin and his long history with the protocol.

“It could definitely be him, I remember thinking this guy could be Satoshi at the time,” Mr Tsvetnenko said

“I asked him how many Bitcoin he had and he said enough to buy a pizza. Which is a joke because it’s well known in the Bitcoin community the first thing bought with the very first Bitcoin was a pizza.”

The Wired story was not the first time a media outlet has claimed to reveal the true identity of bitcoin’s founder.

Last year, US magazine Newsweek said it had found the mysterious person behind the cryptocurrency t. However the man it named, Dorien Nakamoto, unconditionally denied Newsweek’s claim, and subsequently sued the publication.

The Wired report cites archived blog posts from as far back as 2008, purportedly written by Mr Wright, which discuss aspects of the distributed ledger that is a key element of bitcoin, as well as leaked emails and a liquidation report by Australian corporate recovery firm McGrath Nicol involving one of Mr Wright’s companies.

McGrath Nicol confirmed the veracity of the liquidation report, which states that the company, called Hotwire Preemptive Intelligence, was backed by $30 million in capital that was “injected via bitcoins”.

Potential hoax

Wired acknowledged that the trail of evidence leading to Mr Wright could be part of an elaborate hoax.

Asher Tan of CoinJar, Australia’s largest bitcoin exchange, said he was skeptical of Wired‘s claim, pointing out the bitcoin community relies on mathematical proof.

Solid technical proof should be given more weight than speculation, he said.

“There are some methods of doing this,” Mr Tan said. These would include “moving bitcoin attributed to Satoshi’s personal stash or utilising his personal encryption key (PGP) to communicate.

“These aren’t foolproof methods of identifying him, but anyone who publicly stakes a claim to being Satoshi would be expected to demonstrate either of these methods.”

The New York Times, which conducted an inconclusive investigation of its own into the matter, has described Mr Nakamoto’s identity as “one of the great mysteries of the digital age”.

But many in the bitcoin community believe that the identity of the person (or people) behind Nakamoto is irrelevant, since the virtual currency is an open source and community driven technology. It sure is a fun story though.

Do you know Satoshi Nakamoto? Email our reporters.

Henry Sapiecha

APOSTLES of blockchain, the technology behind Bitcoin, think of it as the internet of money

with implications stretching far beyond the cryptocurrency

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Henry Sapiecha

For billionaire Manoj Bhargava (like many other people), the world is a place full of problems. Between poverty, pollution, food growth, and access to water, the list seems to be ever growing. That’s why he’s recently pledged to spearhead a group aimed at giving away all their billions to turning things around for mankind.

Here’s how he plans to do it…

It seems like a promotional video, but the message behind it is so important.

Regardless of whether he’s naive or not, there’s no question his motives are pure. It’s certainly something society — and the world — needs. Stereotypes and politics aside, there are many wealthy people that truly help the needy…and we hope the number of those people increases.

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MORE HERE > www.h20-water.com   www.newcures.info   www.energy-options.info

Henry Sapiecha

 MEGA MANSIONS & YACHTS ARE A DAILY LIFESTYLE FOR A BILLIONAIRE

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